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How to achieve high conversion efficiency of solar panels is one of the main concerns of PV solar panel manufacturers and module suppliers. The amount of light received by a solar cell is critical to generating electricity, so the transparency of each layer is also important to conversion efficiency.
Photovoltaic solar panels contain a series of silicon crystalline cells inserted between a top glass panel and a plastic backsheet, held in place by an aluminum frame support. The top glass panel protects the silicon crystalline cells from weather and hail or from all types of suspended particles in the air. To increase efficiency and improve light transmission, many manufacturers use high-transmission glass with a low iron content and an anti-reflective coating on the back. The glass is usually high-strength tempered glass, 3.0 to 4.0 mm thick, designed to resist mechanical loads and extreme temperature changes. In the event of an accident or severe impact, tempered glass is also much safer than standard glass, which breaks into tiny shards rather than sharp, jagged glass fragments.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) minimum standard impact test requires that the solar panel be able to withstand a 1-inch (25 mm) diameter hailstorm impacting at 60 mph. The glass should have high transparency to take full advantage of the light received by the solar cell. Light passing through the glass will be transmitted, absorbed or reflected. The thicker the glass, the more resistant it is to weather effects. However, this tends to make it less transparent.
Usually, glass is coated with an anti-reflective coating. The coating helps reduce the amount of light reflected by the glass and increases the amount of light that penetrates the glass, resulting in a high conversion rate for solar PV panels. The application of coating technology reduces the light reflectivity while maintaining the high transparency of the glass. In general, light passing through glass at a small angle has a higher reflectivity than light passing through at a large angle. During the daytime, the angle of incidence of sunlight is smaller at sunrise and sunset. Therefore, in order to optimize the conversion rate, it is necessary to reduce the reflection of sunlight at low incidence angles.
The encapsulation material fills the space between the glass and the solar cell. The layer should maintain a high level of transparency. However, over time, this polymer material may deteriorate in quality due to exposure to the outside. It may yellow or blur (decrease in transparency).
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